forestry dictionary

Dictionary of forestry names and terms

Amethyst Deceiver

Laccarria amethystea. Autumn/winter fungus. Grows in many habitats including woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Annual ring.

Layer of wood growth put on under the bark of a tree in a year.
 

Arboretum

Collection of specimen trees.
 

Ash

Fraxinus excelsior. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 40m. Widespread native British tree used for making tool handles and floors.
 

Ball rooted

Transplanted tree ready for planting with roots wrapped up in a ball.
 

Bare rooted

Plant sent from nursery with roots bare of soil.
 

Bark

Outer bark is the protective layer on the outside of the trunk it is renewed from beneath. Inner bark is the layer under the outer bark that carries food through the tree.
 

Beating up

Filling in gaps caused by dead/damaged trees with new young trees.
 

Beech

Fagus sylvatica. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 40m. Handsome tree used in furniture making.
 

Beef Steak Fungus

Fistulina hepatica. Autumn fungus. Sometimes found growing on oak trunks. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Birch Boletus

Leccinum scabrum. Fungus sometimes found under birch trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Bole

Trunk of a tree.
 

Boletus luridus

Fungus sometimes found in oak/beech woods on limey soil - not edible.
 

Brashing

Removing low branches in a plantation.
 

Caesar's Mushroom

Amanita caesarea. Fungus sometimes found in broadleaved woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Canker

Diseased area on a tree.
 

Cauliflower Fungus

Sparassis crispa. Autumn fungus. Sometimes found growing on stumps of felled pine trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating.)
 

Cell grown

Seedlings grown in containers.
 

Chanterelle

Cantharellus cibarius. Autumn fungus sometimes found growing under beech and birch trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Chicken in the Wood

Laetioporus sulphureus. Spring/autumn fungus sometimes found growing on the trunks of broad-leaved trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating)
 

Conifer

Tree that bears cones.
 

Coppice

Trees such as Hazel that every few years are cut down to a 'stool' near to ground level to send up several straight stems.
 

Coppice cycle

Number of years between cutting the coppice.
 

Cord

Volume of stacked firewood that weighs 1 tonne when dry.
 

Corsican Pine

Pinus nigra maritima. Evergreen softwood. Grows to 27m. Fast growing variety straight trunk lightly branched.
 

Death Cap

Amanita phalloides. Fungus growing in many areas especially in oak or beech woods. Highly poisonous.
 

Destroying Angel.

Amanita verosa. Fungus sometimes found in woodland. Highly poisonous.
 

Douglas Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii. Evergreen softwood. Grows to 60m. Major timber species in North America valuable timber producer for paper pulp.
 

Earth Ball

Scleroderma citrinum. Autumn/winter fungus. Sometimes found growing in woodland. Inedible.
 

Fairy Cake Fungus

Hebeloma crustuliniforme. Autumn fungus sometimes found growing in damp ground in woods. Highly Poisonous.
 

False Chanterelle.

Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca. Autumn Fungus sometimes found under conifers. Often confused with the true Chanterelle but lacks the 'apricot' smell. Inedible
 

False Death Cap

Amanita citrina. Fungus often confused with the true Death Cap. Inedible.
 

Feathered tree

Young tree with many branches going down to the ground
 

Felling

Cutting down trees.
 

Fire Break

Strip of land in woodland left uplanted and kept clear to prevent spread of fire.
 

Fly Agaric

Amanita muscaria. Fungus sometimes found under birch trees. Childern's 'picture book' red and white toadstool. Poisonous.
 

Glade

Open grassy area in woodland
 

Grisette

Amanita vaginata. Fungus sometimes found growing under beech trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Hazel

Corylus avellana. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 7m. Often coppiced used for fencing hurdle making and garden poles.
 

Heartwood

Strong central core of tree consisting of dead cells.
 

Honey Fungus

Armillariella mellea. Parasitic fungus. Edible but can cause stomach upset in some people. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Horn of Plenty

Craterellus cornucopioides.Autumn fungus sometimes found growing in broad-leaved woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating)
 

Hybrid Larch

Larix x eurolepis Henry. Deciduous softwood. Grows to 30m. Originated as cross pollination of Japanese and European Larch faster growing than the parent plants and does well in poor conditions.
 

Ink Cap

Coprinus atramentarius. Spring/autumn fungus. Sometimes found growing from wood under leaf litter. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Lactarius deliciosus

Summer/autumn fungus sometimes found growing in conifer woods. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Lactarius rufus

Summer/Autumn fungus sometimes found growing in pine woods. Inedible.
 

Larch Bolete

Suillus grevillei. Fungus sometimes found growing under Larch trees. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Leader

Top shoot of a tree.
 

Lodgepole Pine

Pinus contorta latifolia. Evergreen softwood. Variety of the North American Shore Pine tolerates poor soil timber used for joinery and paper pulp.
 

Maiden

Young untrimmed tree.
 

Mast

Fruit from trees such as beech used to be used for fattening pigs.
 

Morel

Morchella esculenta. Spring fungus. Sometimes found growing in broad-leaved woodlands. Edible.
 

Mycena galericulata

All year fungus sometimes found growing in small clumps on decaying wood. Inedible.
 

Native Woodland

Woodland containing only native trees.
 

Noble Fir

Abies procera. Evergreen softwood. Grows to 45m. Will do well in wet areas close grained timber handsome tree with blue/green foliage.
 

Norway Spruce

Picea abies. Evergreen softwood. Traditional Christmas Tree timber used for interior building work and known as 'white deal'.
 

Oak.

Quercus robur. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 30m. Timber used for furniture and wine barrels sawdust used to smoke salmon etc.
 

Oak Milk Cap

Lactarius quietus. Autumn fungus sometimes found growing near oak trees. Inedible.
 

Oyster Mushroom

Pleurotus ostreatus. All year fungus sometimes found growing on trunks of broad-leaved trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Parasol Mushroom

Lepiota procera. Fungus sometimes found at the edges of woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Petiole

Stalk that attaches a leaf to a twig.
 

Phloem

see Bark inner.
 

Pinetum

Collection of conifers.
 

Pine Spike Cap

Chroogomphus rutilus. Fungus sometimes found growing under pines. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Pollarding

Annual cutting branches off a tree at 2 to 3 metres to keep a uniform shape.
 

Puffball

Lycoperdon pyriforme. Summer/autumn fungus. Sometimes found growing on decaying wood. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Pulpwood

Timber used for paper making.
 

Ride

Unplanted open strip through woodland for access.
 

Ring Barking

Removing bark and inner cambium layer from circumference of tree - the tree will die.
 

Roundwood

Wood used for poles stakes etc. Too thin to be used in a sawmill.
 

Rowan

Sorbus aucuparia. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 10m. Often grown decoratively will thrive in high locations berries used to make jelly to serve with game.
 

Russet Shank

Collybia dryophila. Spring & Autumn fungus. Sometimes found in oak woods. Inedible.
 

Sapwood

Pipeline' taking water up a tree.
 

Scots Pine

Pinus sylvestris. Evergreen softwood. The only UK native timber-producing conifer thrives in poor conditions.
 

Sets

Long shoots of willow/poplar that will take root in the ground.
 

Shaggy Parasol

Lepiota rhacodes. Shade loving fungus. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Silver Birch

Betula pendula. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 15m. White papery bark prolific self seeder timber used to make plywood.
 

Sitka Spruce

Picea sitchenis. Evergreen softwood. Grows to 55m. High yielding versatile timber.
 

Slippery Jack

Suillus luteus. Fungus sometimes found growing under conifers. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Small leaved Lime

Tilia cordata. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 35m. Fine textured timber used for wood turning and carving.
 

Soft Slipper Toadstool

Crepidotus mollis. Summer/autumn fungus sometimes found in groups on stumps of felled broad-leaved trees. Inedible.
 

St. George's Mushroom

Tricholoma gambosum. Spring fungus sometimes found under trees or in grass on chalky soil. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Stinkhorn

Phallus impudicus. Spring/Autumn fungus. Sometimes found growing in woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Suillus bovinus

Fungus sometimes found under Scots Pines. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Suillus granulatus

Autumn fungus. Sometimes found in coniferous woods. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Sulpher Tuft

Hypholoma fasciulare. All year fungus. Sometimes found growing on the stumps of felled trees. Poisonous.
 

Sweet Chestnut

Castanea sativa. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 40m. Strong timber used in joinery and fence making edible nut crop.
 

Sycamore.

Acer pseudoplatanus. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 25m. Will grow near the coast timber used for making musical instruments and veneers.
 

The Deceiver

Laccaria laccata. Summer/winter fungus. Found in many habitats including woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

The Miller

Clitopilus prunulus. Summer/autumn fungus sometimes found growing in bare ground in woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Velvet Shank

Flammulina velutipes. Winter fungus sometimes found growing on old trunks of fallen trees. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Verdigris Toadstool

Spring/Autumn fungus sometimes found growing in woodlands. Inedible.
 

Western Hemlock

Tsuga heterophylla. Evergreen softwood. Grows to 70m. Long lived tree timber used in building and for making boxes.
 

Wild Cherry

Prunus avium. Deciduous hardwood. Grows to 24m. Timber used for musical instruments and veneers.
 

Wood Blewit

Lepista nuda. Autumn/winter fungus. Sometimes found growing in woodland under hedges and in compost heaps. Edible but some people are allergic to them. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Wood Hedgehog

Hydnum repandum. Autumn fungus sometimes found in broad- leaved woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Wood Mushroom

Agaricus silvicola. Autumn fungus sometimes growing in woodland. Edible. (Ensure correct identification before eating).
 

Wood Woolly Foot

Collybia peronata. Autumn fungus sometimes found growing in leaf litter on the forest floor. Inedible.
 

Yellow Swamp Russula.

Russola claroflava. Autumn fungus sometimes found in damp birch woods. Inedible.
 

Yew

Taxus baccata. Evergreen softwood. Grows to 15m. One of the oldest living trees wood used for furniture making and veneers.